Eigen  3.2.90 (mercurial changeset 48516422ee1e)
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Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType > Class Template Reference

Detailed Description

template<typename MatrixType>
class Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >

LU decomposition of a matrix with complete pivoting, and related features.

Parameters
MatrixTypethe type of the matrix of which we are computing the LU decomposition

This class represents a LU decomposition of any matrix, with complete pivoting: the matrix A is decomposed as $ A = P^{-1} L U Q^{-1} $ where L is unit-lower-triangular, U is upper-triangular, and P and Q are permutation matrices. This is a rank-revealing LU decomposition. The eigenvalues (diagonal coefficients) of U are sorted in such a way that any zeros are at the end.

This decomposition provides the generic approach to solving systems of linear equations, computing the rank, invertibility, inverse, kernel, and determinant.

This LU decomposition is very stable and well tested with large matrices. However there are use cases where the SVD decomposition is inherently more stable and/or flexible. For example, when computing the kernel of a matrix, working with the SVD allows to select the smallest singular values of the matrix, something that the LU decomposition doesn't see.

The data of the LU decomposition can be directly accessed through the methods matrixLU(), permutationP(), permutationQ().

As an exemple, here is how the original matrix can be retrieved:

typedef Matrix<double, 5, 3> Matrix5x3;
typedef Matrix<double, 5, 5> Matrix5x5;
Matrix5x3 m = Matrix5x3::Random();
cout << "Here is the matrix m:" << endl << m << endl;
cout << "Here is, up to permutations, its LU decomposition matrix:"
<< endl << lu.matrixLU() << endl;
cout << "Here is the L part:" << endl;
Matrix5x5 l = Matrix5x5::Identity();
l.block<5,3>(0,0).triangularView<StrictlyLower>() = lu.matrixLU();
cout << l << endl;
cout << "Here is the U part:" << endl;
Matrix5x3 u = lu.matrixLU().triangularView<Upper>();
cout << u << endl;
cout << "Let us now reconstruct the original matrix m:" << endl;
cout << lu.permutationP().inverse() * l * u * lu.permutationQ().inverse() << endl;

Output:

Here is the matrix m:
   0.68  -0.605 -0.0452
 -0.211   -0.33   0.258
  0.566   0.536   -0.27
  0.597  -0.444  0.0268
  0.823   0.108   0.904
Here is, up to permutations, its LU decomposition matrix:
 0.904  0.823  0.108
-0.299  0.812  0.569
 -0.05  0.888   -1.1
0.0296  0.705  0.768
 0.285 -0.549 0.0436
Here is the L part:
     1      0      0      0      0
-0.299      1      0      0      0
 -0.05  0.888      1      0      0
0.0296  0.705  0.768      1      0
 0.285 -0.549 0.0436      0      1
Here is the U part:
0.904 0.823 0.108
    0 0.812 0.569
    0     0  -1.1
    0     0     0
    0     0     0
Let us now reconstruct the original matrix m:
   0.68  -0.605 -0.0452
 -0.211   -0.33   0.258
  0.566   0.536   -0.27
  0.597  -0.444  0.0268
  0.823   0.108   0.904
See Also
MatrixBase::fullPivLu(), MatrixBase::determinant(), MatrixBase::inverse()

Public Member Functions

FullPivLUcompute (const MatrixType &matrix)
 
internal::traits< MatrixType >
::Scalar 
determinant () const
 
Index dimensionOfKernel () const
 
 FullPivLU ()
 Default Constructor. More...
 
 FullPivLU (Index rows, Index cols)
 Default Constructor with memory preallocation. More...
 
 FullPivLU (const MatrixType &matrix)
 
const internal::image_retval
< FullPivLU
image (const MatrixType &originalMatrix) const
 
const internal::solve_retval
< FullPivLU, typename
MatrixType::IdentityReturnType > 
inverse () const
 
bool isInjective () const
 
bool isInvertible () const
 
bool isSurjective () const
 
const internal::kernel_retval
< FullPivLU
kernel () const
 
const MatrixType & matrixLU () const
 
RealScalar maxPivot () const
 
Index nonzeroPivots () const
 
const PermutationPTypepermutationP () const
 
const PermutationQTypepermutationQ () const
 
Index rank () const
 
MatrixType reconstructedMatrix () const
 
FullPivLUsetThreshold (const RealScalar &threshold)
 
FullPivLUsetThreshold (Default_t)
 
template<typename Rhs >
const internal::solve_retval
< FullPivLU, Rhs > 
solve (const MatrixBase< Rhs > &b) const
 
RealScalar threshold () const
 

Constructor & Destructor Documentation

template<typename MatrixType >
Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::FullPivLU ( )

Default Constructor.

The default constructor is useful in cases in which the user intends to perform decompositions via LU::compute(const MatrixType&).

template<typename MatrixType >
Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::FullPivLU ( Index  rows,
Index  cols 
)

Default Constructor with memory preallocation.

Like the default constructor but with preallocation of the internal data according to the specified problem size.

See Also
FullPivLU()
template<typename MatrixType >
Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::FullPivLU ( const MatrixType &  matrix)

Constructor.

Parameters
matrixthe matrix of which to compute the LU decomposition. It is required to be nonzero.

References Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::compute().

Member Function Documentation

template<typename MatrixType >
FullPivLU< MatrixType > & Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::compute ( const MatrixType &  matrix)

Computes the LU decomposition of the given matrix.

Parameters
matrixthe matrix of which to compute the LU decomposition. It is required to be nonzero.
Returns
a reference to *this

Referenced by Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::FullPivLU().

template<typename MatrixType >
internal::traits< MatrixType >::Scalar Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::determinant ( ) const
Returns
the determinant of the matrix of which *this is the LU decomposition. It has only linear complexity (that is, O(n) where n is the dimension of the square matrix) as the LU decomposition has already been computed.
Note
This is only for square matrices.
For fixed-size matrices of size up to 4, MatrixBase::determinant() offers optimized paths.
Warning
a determinant can be very big or small, so for matrices of large enough dimension, there is a risk of overflow/underflow.
See Also
MatrixBase::determinant()
template<typename MatrixType>
Index Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::dimensionOfKernel ( ) const
inline
Returns
the dimension of the kernel of the matrix of which *this is the LU decomposition.
Note
This method has to determine which pivots should be considered nonzero. For that, it uses the threshold value that you can control by calling setThreshold(const RealScalar&).

References Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::rank().

template<typename MatrixType>
const internal::image_retval<FullPivLU> Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::image ( const MatrixType &  originalMatrix) const
inline
Returns
the image of the matrix, also called its column-space. The columns of the returned matrix will form a basis of the kernel.
Parameters
originalMatrixthe original matrix, of which *this is the LU decomposition. The reason why it is needed to pass it here, is that this allows a large optimization, as otherwise this method would need to reconstruct it from the LU decomposition.
Note
If the image has dimension zero, then the returned matrix is a column-vector filled with zeros.
This method has to determine which pivots should be considered nonzero. For that, it uses the threshold value that you can control by calling setThreshold(const RealScalar&).

Example:

m << 1,1,0,
1,3,2,
0,1,1;
cout << "Here is the matrix m:" << endl << m << endl;
cout << "Notice that the middle column is the sum of the two others, so the "
<< "columns are linearly dependent." << endl;
cout << "Here is a matrix whose columns have the same span but are linearly independent:"
<< endl << m.fullPivLu().image(m) << endl;

Output:

Here is the matrix m:
1 1 0
1 3 2
0 1 1
Notice that the middle column is the sum of the two others, so the columns are linearly dependent.
Here is a matrix whose columns have the same span but are linearly independent:
1 1
3 1
1 0
See Also
kernel()
template<typename MatrixType>
const internal::solve_retval<FullPivLU,typename MatrixType::IdentityReturnType> Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::inverse ( ) const
inline
Returns
the inverse of the matrix of which *this is the LU decomposition.
Note
If this matrix is not invertible, the returned matrix has undefined coefficients. Use isInvertible() to first determine whether this matrix is invertible.
See Also
MatrixBase::inverse()
template<typename MatrixType>
bool Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::isInjective ( ) const
inline
Returns
true if the matrix of which *this is the LU decomposition represents an injective linear map, i.e. has trivial kernel; false otherwise.
Note
This method has to determine which pivots should be considered nonzero. For that, it uses the threshold value that you can control by calling setThreshold(const RealScalar&).

References Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::rank().

Referenced by Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::isInvertible().

template<typename MatrixType>
bool Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::isInvertible ( ) const
inline
Returns
true if the matrix of which *this is the LU decomposition is invertible.
Note
This method has to determine which pivots should be considered nonzero. For that, it uses the threshold value that you can control by calling setThreshold(const RealScalar&).

References Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::isInjective().

template<typename MatrixType>
bool Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::isSurjective ( ) const
inline
Returns
true if the matrix of which *this is the LU decomposition represents a surjective linear map; false otherwise.
Note
This method has to determine which pivots should be considered nonzero. For that, it uses the threshold value that you can control by calling setThreshold(const RealScalar&).

References Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::rank().

template<typename MatrixType>
const internal::kernel_retval<FullPivLU> Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::kernel ( ) const
inline
Returns
the kernel of the matrix, also called its null-space. The columns of the returned matrix will form a basis of the kernel.
Note
If the kernel has dimension zero, then the returned matrix is a column-vector filled with zeros.
This method has to determine which pivots should be considered nonzero. For that, it uses the threshold value that you can control by calling setThreshold(const RealScalar&).

Example:

cout << "Here is the matrix m:" << endl << m << endl;
MatrixXf ker = m.fullPivLu().kernel();
cout << "Here is a matrix whose columns form a basis of the kernel of m:"
<< endl << ker << endl;
cout << "By definition of the kernel, m*ker is zero:"
<< endl << m*ker << endl;

Output:

Here is the matrix m:
   0.68   0.597   -0.33   0.108   -0.27
 -0.211   0.823   0.536 -0.0452  0.0268
  0.566  -0.605  -0.444   0.258   0.904
Here is a matrix whose columns form a basis of the kernel of m:
 -0.219   0.763
0.00335  -0.447
      0       1
      1       0
 -0.145  -0.285
By definition of the kernel, m*ker is zero:
-1.12e-08  1.49e-08
 -1.4e-09 -4.05e-08
 1.49e-08 -2.98e-08
See Also
image()
template<typename MatrixType>
const MatrixType& Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::matrixLU ( ) const
inline
Returns
the LU decomposition matrix: the upper-triangular part is U, the unit-lower-triangular part is L (at least for square matrices; in the non-square case, special care is needed, see the documentation of class FullPivLU).
See Also
matrixL(), matrixU()
template<typename MatrixType>
RealScalar Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::maxPivot ( ) const
inline
Returns
the absolute value of the biggest pivot, i.e. the biggest diagonal coefficient of U.
template<typename MatrixType>
Index Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::nonzeroPivots ( ) const
inline
Returns
the number of nonzero pivots in the LU decomposition. Here nonzero is meant in the exact sense, not in a fuzzy sense. So that notion isn't really intrinsically interesting, but it is still useful when implementing algorithms.
See Also
rank()
template<typename MatrixType>
const PermutationPType& Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::permutationP ( ) const
inline
Returns
the permutation matrix P
See Also
permutationQ()
template<typename MatrixType>
const PermutationQType& Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::permutationQ ( ) const
inline
Returns
the permutation matrix Q
See Also
permutationP()
template<typename MatrixType>
Index Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::rank ( ) const
inline
Returns
the rank of the matrix of which *this is the LU decomposition.
Note
This method has to determine which pivots should be considered nonzero. For that, it uses the threshold value that you can control by calling setThreshold(const RealScalar&).

References Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::threshold().

Referenced by Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::dimensionOfKernel(), Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::isInjective(), and Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::isSurjective().

template<typename MatrixType >
MatrixType Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::reconstructedMatrix ( ) const
Returns
the matrix represented by the decomposition, i.e., it returns the product: $ P^{-1} L U Q^{-1} $. This function is provided for debug purposes.
template<typename MatrixType>
FullPivLU& Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::setThreshold ( const RealScalar &  threshold)
inline

Allows to prescribe a threshold to be used by certain methods, such as rank(), who need to determine when pivots are to be considered nonzero. This is not used for the LU decomposition itself.

When it needs to get the threshold value, Eigen calls threshold(). By default, this uses a formula to automatically determine a reasonable threshold. Once you have called the present method setThreshold(const RealScalar&), your value is used instead.

Parameters
thresholdThe new value to use as the threshold.

A pivot will be considered nonzero if its absolute value is strictly greater than $ \vert pivot \vert \leqslant threshold \times \vert maxpivot \vert $ where maxpivot is the biggest pivot.

If you want to come back to the default behavior, call setThreshold(Default_t)

References Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::threshold().

template<typename MatrixType>
FullPivLU& Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::setThreshold ( Default_t  )
inline

Allows to come back to the default behavior, letting Eigen use its default formula for determining the threshold.

You should pass the special object Eigen::Default as parameter here.

lu.setThreshold(Eigen::Default);

See the documentation of setThreshold(const RealScalar&).

template<typename MatrixType>
template<typename Rhs >
const internal::solve_retval<FullPivLU, Rhs> Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::solve ( const MatrixBase< Rhs > &  b) const
inline
Returns
a solution x to the equation Ax=b, where A is the matrix of which *this is the LU decomposition.
Parameters
bthe right-hand-side of the equation to solve. Can be a vector or a matrix, the only requirement in order for the equation to make sense is that b.rows()==A.rows(), where A is the matrix of which *this is the LU decomposition.
Returns
a solution.

This method just tries to find as good a solution as possible. If you want to check whether a solution exists or if it is accurate, just call this function to get a result and then compute the error of this result, or use MatrixBase::isApprox() directly, for instance like this:

bool a_solution_exists = (A*result).isApprox(b, precision);

This method avoids dividing by zero, so that the non-existence of a solution doesn't by itself mean that you'll get inf or nan values.

If there exists more than one solution, this method will arbitrarily choose one. If you need a complete analysis of the space of solutions, take the one solution obtained by this method and add to it elements of the kernel, as determined by kernel().

Example:

Matrix<float,2,3> m = Matrix<float,2,3>::Random();
cout << "Here is the matrix m:" << endl << m << endl;
cout << "Here is the matrix y:" << endl << y << endl;
Matrix<float,3,2> x = m.fullPivLu().solve(y);
if((m*x).isApprox(y))
{
cout << "Here is a solution x to the equation mx=y:" << endl << x << endl;
}
else
cout << "The equation mx=y does not have any solution." << endl;

Output:

Here is the matrix m:
  0.68  0.566  0.823
-0.211  0.597 -0.605
Here is the matrix y:
 -0.33 -0.444
 0.536  0.108
Here is a solution x to the equation mx=y:
     0      0
 0.291 -0.216
  -0.6 -0.391
See Also
TriangularView::solve(), kernel(), inverse()
template<typename MatrixType>
RealScalar Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::threshold ( ) const
inline

Returns the threshold that will be used by certain methods such as rank().

See the documentation of setThreshold(const RealScalar&).

Referenced by Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::rank(), and Eigen::FullPivLU< MatrixType >::setThreshold().


The documentation for this class was generated from the following files: